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The plebeian council elected the tribunes of the plebs to preside over their assemblies. [21] However, it is unlikely that the Council had constitutional recognition prior to the creation of the Twelve Tablets between 451 and 450 BC. [22] At the meetings of the plebeian council, they passed resolutions, conducted trials, and discussed questions concerning the condition of the plebeians. Their ability to conduct political prosecutions was later limited by the Twelve Tables. [22] The organizational system of tribal units was adopted by the council in 471 BC. AD, although the exact relationship between tribes and tribes is not clear, as the number of tribes did not correspond to the number of tribes. In addition, most of the tribes were located outside the city, while the plebeian tribes were exclusive to the city. [21] Thirty years later, one of these tribunes, Gaius Terentillus Arsa, began advocating legal reform. He argued that the unbridled power of the consuls actually created two despotic monarchs and was the cause of much oppression and injustice against the plebeians. As meat was very expensive, animal products such as pork, beef, and veal would have been considered a delicacy for plebeians. Instead, a plebeian diet consisted mainly of bread and vegetables. Common flavors for their foods were honey, vinegar and various herbs and spices.

A spice known to this day, known as garum, which is a fish sauce, was also widely consumed. [31] After the laws were revised in accordance with public opinion, the ten tables were brought into force. After that, however, some began to argue for the need for two additional tables, thus arousing the desire to appoint another decemirate. And because of the success of the first and the general aversion of the plebeians to consular authority, a second decemirate was chosen. However, the new decemvirs would quickly deviate radically from the behavior of the previous ones. While previous decemvirs had rotating guards depending on who administered the government on a given day, the new decemvirs each had twelve armed guards. Moreover, the plebeians were willing to waive the protection of the tribunes because, although the first decemvirs were technically suspended for the decemvirate, the first decemvirs had appealed by allowing their colleagues to file petitions for legal matters. They even adjourned the people in matters that seemed more appropriate for the competence of the citizens.

However, the new decemvirs denied the right to appeal and mutually agreed to prohibit mutual interference. Apparently, Rome was now ruled by ten kings. The tribunes of the people were elected by the plebeian council. Initially, only 2 to 5 tribunes were elected, until the College of 10 was established in 457 BC. [23] They served as spokesmen for the plebeians of Rome, with the aim of protecting the interests of the plebeians against patrician rule. [24] The tribunes could convene the meetings of the Council, which they prepared. [25] Since the plebeians were unable to become politically active themselves, the tribunes had the opportunity to have a lasting effect through their political function. [23] The tribunes were responsible for organizing support for legislation, organizing contiones, a form of speech or assembly, and prosecuting criminals before the council.

[25] Their position as head of the plebeian council gave the tribunes great control over the city in their ability to organize the plebeians into a political weapon. [25] Modern civil law derives from ancient Roman law, and Roman jurisprudence was again based on the Law of the Twelve Tables. But during the first three centuries of ancient Rome, there was no codified law. As the Roman jurist Sextus Pomponius explained: “At the beginning of our city, the people began their first activities without fixed law and fixed rights: all things were despotically ruled by kings.” But even after the fall of the monarchy and the founding of the Roman Republic around 509 BC. The capricious character of the legal authority had not diminished. Laelius Felix and G.W. Botsford proposed theories that attempt to distinguish the terms concilium and comitia. [27] Felix`s theory, although widely followed, is also hotly contested.

His theory assumes that a concilium designates an exclusive assembly that includes only part of the universus populus, while a comitia designates a session of an entire universus populus. [27] The main arguments against his theory are (1) its definition depends on a distinction between the assemblies of Populus and plebeians, despite the systematic denial of the existence of an assembly composed only of plebeians after 287 BC. J.-C.; and (2) there are passages by Roman authors referring to plebeian assemblies as comitia, as opposed to Concilium plebis. [27] This weakens Felix`s suggestion that a committee appoint an assembly of the universus populus. One person who became nobilis by election to the consulate was a novus homo (a new man). Marius and Cicero are notable examples of novi homines (new men) at the end of the Republic,[30] when many of Rome`s richest and most powerful men, such as Lucullus, Marcus Crassus, and Pompey, were plebeian nobles. During the Second Samnite War (326-304 BC), the plebeians who came to power through these social reforms began to acquire the aura of nobles (“nobility”, also “fame, glory”), which marked the creation of a ruling elite of nobles. [24] From the middle of the 4th century to the beginning of the 3rd century BC, several plebeian-patrician “notes” at the consulate repeated common conditions, suggesting a deliberate political strategy of cooperation. [25] The creation of the office of the plebeian tribune and the plebeian aedile marks the end of the first phase of the struggle between the plebeians and the patricians (the conflict of orders).

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